Pronunciation Lesson Plan: Consonant sound /dʒ/
By Ashleigh R. – 250-hour TESOL Diploma graduate
Level: Low intermediate and above
Duration: Approx. 60 minutes
Introduce the articulation of the affricate post alveolar voiced sound /dʒ/ through context.
Provide controlled, semi-controlled and freer practice through drilling and communicative activities.
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By the end of the lesson, students will be producing /dʒ/ more accurately and fluently in roleplaying and storytelling activities.
The students are familiar with the vocabulary used in the different sections of this lesson. They are aware that they have problems pronouncing the sound /dʒ/ but they do not know what is wrong. They are able to identify words containing the letters ‘j’, ‘g’ and ‘dge’ as in January, edge, George, and large, but will probably pronounce these words with the sound /ʃ/ as in /la:r ʃ / instead of / la:r dʒ/, or,
/tʃ/ as in /la:r tʃ/. (Note: in this lesson, only the minimal pairs /dʒ/ and /tʃ/ will be compared. A similar layout could be used to present and practice /dʒ/ and /ʃ/ if those were sounds your students will have trouble with.)
Anticipated problems and solutions:
The students will pronounce /ʃ/ or /tʃ/ for /dʒ/ and may not identify the difference. They may become frustrated if they cannot reproduce the sound correctly. 1-The teacher will draw the profile of the sound /dʒ/ as described in step 3 below, and show the articulation of the sound. 2- The teacher should have appropriate and exciting activities which help SS practice in a non-stressful way.
Board, markers, minimal pairs and role-play handouts.
-Baker, A. 1981. Ship or Sheep? An intermediate pronunciation course. UK: Cambridge University Press.
Presentation Stage – Pronunciation Lesson Plan
Step 1- Present the sound through a story. Skills: listening and speaking – Technique: Answer questions – Interactive pattern: T-S – Time: 5-8 minutes.
I heard a story about a car accident that I want to share with you. Here are some questions to think about, so listen carefully. (T gives out a copy of the questions and goes over the questions to see if they all understand what they have to listen for.)
- Where was the accident, on a bridge or a highway?
- What kind of vehicle was it?
- Who was driving?
- Was he driving carefully or dangerously?
- What was he doing before he drove?
- Was anyone injured?
- What happened to the driver?
T: Now listen to the story.
Two jeeps crashed on a bridge in January. A man named George John was driving the larger jeep. He was driving very dangerously because he had been drinking ‘soju*.’ The other jeep went over the edge, and two kids were injured. Now George is in jail.
*soju is a Korean alcoholic drink.
[T checks comprehension of the story and writes down the key words that contain the sound /dʒ/. At this point, T will not correct the sound /dʒ/]
T: Where was the accident, on a bridge or a highway?
S: A bridge (T writes ‘bridge’ on the board.)
T: What kind of vehicle was it?
S: A jeep (T writes ‘jeep’ on the board.)
T: Tell me, who was driving?
S: George John (T writes ‘George and John’ on the board.)
T: Was he driving carefully or dangerously?
S: Dangerously (T writes ‘dangerously’ on the board.)
T: What was he doing before he drove?
S: Drinking soju (T writes ‘soju’ on the board.)
T: Was anyone injured? (T writes ‘injured’ on the board.)
S: Yes, two kids.
T: What happened to George?
S: He went to jail. (T writes ‘jail’ on the board.)
T: And do you remember when the accident happened?
S: January. (T writes ‘January’ on the board.)
Step 2: Elicitation and systematization on the board. Skills: listening and speaking Technique: concept questions and brainstorming words with /dʒ/. Interactive pattern: T-S – Time: 10 minutes – Aids: the board.
T: [Circles all words containing the letter ‘j’ ] Look at these words (January, jeep, John, soju, injured, jail.) What letter do they have in common?
T: That’s right. And how do you say this word? [T points to ‘January’ and corrects student if necessary.]
T: Now, are there any other words that have a different spelling, but have the same sound as ‘j’ /dʒ/ in January?
T: Right, so even though it’s spelled ‘dge’, you still pronounce it with the sound in ‘j’. What other words on the board are spelled ‘dge’.
T: Look at the list and find the other words with this sound, but with a different spelling.
S: George, larger.
The board will look like this:
T: What are some other /dʒ/ sounding words? Can anyone think of other words with that sound?
S: Answers will vary. Possible answers: job, juice, orange, Jane, gin, just, etc.
T writes new words under the corresponding letter in the chart above. Then, circles the highlighted portions of the words and writes /dʒ/ as a title over the chart.
T shows the students the following picture or draws it on the board. The profile shows the articulation of the sound, i.e., how the tongue sits in the mouth. T guides the students with tongue positioning.
T: First, think of the sound /d/ and put the tip of your tongue against the roof of your mouth. (Have them practice /d/ alone first). Now, to make /dʒ/, you have to move your tongue slightly backwards and quickly release a VOICED puff of air, slowly dropping your jaw. Touch your throat and feel the vibration. This is a voiced sound.
Step 3: Modeling the new sound- Skills: speaking – Technique: Repetition – Interactive pattern: T-S/S – Time: 3 minutes
T models the sound again and gets the SS to practice the sound slowing, focusing on the two tongue positions described above. T goes around and makes sure each individual student understands how to make the sound.
T: Ok, now that you have a better idea of where to place the tongue to pronounce the sound /dʒ/, let’s do some more practice.
Practice stage – Pronunciation Lesson Plan
Aims: To distinguish between the sound /tʃ/ for ‘chain’ and /dʒ/ for ‘Jane’ through minimal pair listening activities. To practice the sound in short sentences through various oral activities.
Activity 1: Identifying minimal pairs /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ – Skill: Listening and speaking – Technique: skim listening and mechanical drilling. Interactive pattern: T-S – Time: 5 minutes. Aids: board
T: Listen for the word that contains the sound /dʒ/. Write down 1 or 2 after each minimal pair. (The students will not see the written words.) For example: 1- H 2- age
Which one contains the sound /dʒ/?
S: Number 2
T: Correct. Now, what about these words? (Note: the correct words are in bold.)
T checks answers, models the words and writes the pairs on the board. T gets the SS to repeat the minimal pairs in turns.
Note: the difference between these two sounds is voicing; the vibration (/dʒ/) or lack of vibration (/tʃ/) of the vocal folds. They share the same place (post alveolar) and manner of articulation (affricative).
Activity 2: Identifying minimal pairs /tʃ/ and /dʒ/- Skill: listening and speaking- Technique: Circle the right word- Interactive pattern: Pair work
Time: 5 minutes – Aids: handouts with list of words and minimal pairs
T pairs SS up and gives Students A a list of words and Student B a list with minimal pairs. Student A has to read the words on his/her list and Students B has to circle the words they hear. In this way, Ss can test each other for which word contains the sound /dʒ/
T checks students’ answers and corrects when necessary.
Activity 3 – Identify the sound in sentences. Skills: reading, listening and speaking- Technique: circle the right word and repetition – Interactive patterns: individual and pair work – Time: 5 minutes – Aids: handouts with sentences.
T gives the students the following sentences and gets them to read the sentences silently and underline the /dʒ/ sound. Then they must have their partner correct their paper. Ss will take turns reading the words aloud. (Peer corrections should be encouraged.)
- He’s the manager of the travel agency in Chester.
- Many ginger-haired people live in this village.
- My trainer at the gym is German.
- Sam joined the club in July.
- Lea is jealous of her Japanese friend.
- The sargeant wears his badge with honour.
Production stage – Pronunciation Lesson Plan
Aim: to produce the sound accurately and fluently through a story and roleplaying activities.
Activity 1: Jack’s First day of school – Skill: speaking and listening – Technique: creating a story using pictures – Interactive pattern: pair-group work – Time: 10 minutes – Aids: Pictures: Jack, orange juice, pajamas, gym, German class, jacket, jeans, jeep, Jasper Elementary School, jam jar, and jelly beans.
Using the pictures, the students must tell a story about Jack and his first day of school, in pairs. Then they must share their stories with the class.
Activity 2: Interviews – Skill: speaking and listening – Technique: Roleplaying- Information gap activity – Interactive pattern: S-S – Time: 15 minutes- Aids: role cards.
T pairs SS up and distributes the handouts for the roleplaying. Student A has to use questions to find out information about their partners’ job and complete the chart. Student A has information on his job. Then, they must switch roles.
(Student A’s expected performance- Possible questions:
What is your job? Do you enjoy your job? How long have you worked at your job? Where do you do your job? What do you do every day?)
Student A’s card
Student B’s card
1-You are a jam taster. You really like your job, but don’t like your manager, Janet. You began working in July 2006. You work at a store called Janet’s Jams. Every day you get to taste a new and delicious jam.
2-You are a fudge taster. Your job is enjoyable. You began working for this company in June 2013. You work with your manager in a small fudge making factory. Every day you binge on chocolate fudge.
3-You are a travel agent. Your job is not enjoyable. You began working in July 2000. You work in a small office with your manager and two diligent co-workers. Every day you tell people to go to the Golden Gate Bridge.
4-You are a singing contest judge. You enjoy your job. You began working in January 1999. You work in a building near a bridge. You judge singers every day.
5-You are a jet pilot. You think your job is great, but it can be dangerous sometimes. You began working in June 2001. You work on a different jet every two weeks. Every day you manage your agenda.
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